Research programmes

The UARM Behavioural Risk Research Programme 

The aim of the UARM behavioural risk research programme is to develop tools to assess and improve the integration of formal risk management principles into organisational management. The aim of the UARM risk culture research project is to develop tools that can be used to assess the risk management culture (‘risk culture’) in organisations and to identify risk culture related areas for improvement.

We used the Hofstede approach to culture as starting point for the development of the UARM RCQ. Hofstede, Hofstede, and Minkov (2010, p. 516) define culture as the trained unwritten rules of the social game or the ‘collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another’. An organisation can be seen as a cultural group that consists of subgroups, each with their own subculture. We use the term organisational risk culture to refer to ways in which groups of people use risk management principles when making decisions on uncertain future events that could have a negative impact on reaching the organisation’s objectives.

The UARM Risk Culture Questionnaire (UARM RCQ) is being developed and tested in the student research and organisation specific projects. In the questionnaire, we distinguish between risk management as a function in the organisation and the use of risk management principles during decision making in the organisation. For purposes of this questionnaire, we expect that participating organisations will have a formal risk management function intended to facilitate and oversee the use of risk management principles at the organisation’s strategic and operational management levels.

Other risk culture related research projects include related topics such as risk attitude and understanding of risk, risk management and risk stakeholders in organisations.



Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations, Software of the mind, Intercultural Cooperation and its importance for survival (Third ed.). USA: McGraw Hill.

For more information on the UARM Risk Culture Research Programme, please contact Prof. Hermien Zaaiman at


Research-related Events

2016 Sep 12: Click here to watch a video interview with Professor Gert Jan Hofstede on organisational culture: